Anti-Monopoly ist ein Brettspiel für zwei bis sechs Personen, das von dem US-amerikanischen Professor Ralph Anspach entwickelt wurde. Das Spiel erschien. I'm working on an english edition of this wiki. See the Field "English" on the left sidebar! If your interested to see these pages in your language. Die Monopoly-Geschichte beginnt im Jahre mit Elizabeth Magie. Erfahre mehr über die erste Monopoly Version und wie sie entstanden. <
Die Geschichte des Monopoly-SpielsNeu in der Sammlung. Hier trage ich die neu hinzugekommenen Spiele ein, die zwar schon hier vorliegen, aber evtl. noch nicht beschrieben. Pokémon Monopoly ist eine Pokémon-Variante des bekannten Brettspiels Monopoly Wikipedia norwoodinnhudson.com, die im Jahr von Parker Brothers. All Items (20). #; A; B; C; D; E; F; G; H; I; J; K; L; M; N; O; P; Q; R; S; T; U; V; W; X; Y; Z; Other. 1. 1. F.C. Köln Edition. B. Bayern Edition. Bielefeld Edition. Borussia.
Monopoly Wiki Inhaltsverzeichnis VideoFrance 🇫🇷 - Valentina from France performs J’imagine at Junior Eurovision 2020
In third degree price discrimination or multi-market price discrimination  the seller divides the consumers into different groups according to their willingness to pay as measured by their price elasticity of demand.
Each group of consumers effectively becomes a separate market with its own demand curve and marginal revenue curve. Airlines charge higher prices to business travelers than to vacation travelers.
The reasoning is that the demand curve for a vacation traveler is relatively elastic while the demand curve for a business traveler is relatively inelastic.
Any determinant of price elasticity of demand can be used to segment markets. For example, seniors have a more elastic demand for movies than do young adults because they generally have more free time.
Thus theaters will offer discount tickets to seniors. The monopolist acquires all the consumer surplus and eliminates practically all the deadweight loss because he is willing to sell to anyone who is willing to pay at least the marginal cost.
That is the monopolist behaving like a perfectly competitive company. Successful price discrimination requires that companies separate consumers according to their willingness to buy.
Determining a customer's willingness to buy a good is difficult. Asking consumers directly is fruitless: consumers don't know, and to the extent they do they are reluctant to share that information with marketers.
The two main methods for determining willingness to buy are observation of personal characteristics and consumer actions. As noted information about where a person lives postal codes , how the person dresses, what kind of car he or she drives, occupation, and income and spending patterns can be helpful in classifying.
Monopoly, besides, is a great enemy to good management. According to the standard model, in which a monopolist sets a single price for all consumers, the monopolist will sell a lesser quantity of goods at a higher price than would companies by perfect competition.
Because the monopolist ultimately forgoes transactions with consumers who value the product or service more than its price, monopoly pricing creates a deadweight loss referring to potential gains that went neither to the monopolist nor to consumers.
Deadweight loss is the cost to society because the market isn't in equilibrium, it is inefficient. Given the presence of this deadweight loss, the combined surplus or wealth for the monopolist and consumers is necessarily less than the total surplus obtained by consumers by perfect competition.
Where efficiency is defined by the total gains from trade, the monopoly setting is less efficient than perfect competition. It is often argued that monopolies tend to become less efficient and less innovative over time, becoming "complacent", because they do not have to be efficient or innovative to compete in the marketplace.
Sometimes this very loss of psychological efficiency can increase a potential competitor's value enough to overcome market entry barriers, or provide incentive for research and investment into new alternatives.
The theory of contestable markets argues that in some circumstances private monopolies are forced to behave as if there were competition because of the risk of losing their monopoly to new entrants.
This is likely to happen when a market's barriers to entry are low. It might also be because of the availability in the longer term of substitutes in other markets.
For example, a canal monopoly, while worth a great deal during the late 18th century United Kingdom, was worth much less during the late 19th century because of the introduction of railways as a substitute.
Contrary to common misconception , monopolists do not try to sell items for the highest possible price, nor do they try to maximize profit per unit, but rather they try to maximize total profit.
A natural monopoly is an organization that experiences increasing returns to scale over the relevant range of output and relatively high fixed costs.
The relevant range of product demand is where the average cost curve is below the demand curve. Often, a natural monopoly is the outcome of an initial rivalry between several competitors.
An early market entrant that takes advantage of the cost structure and can expand rapidly can exclude smaller companies from entering and can drive or buy out other companies.
A natural monopoly suffers from the same inefficiencies as any other monopoly. Left to its own devices, a profit-seeking natural monopoly will produce where marginal revenue equals marginal costs.
Regulation of natural monopolies is problematic. The most frequently used methods dealing with natural monopolies are government regulations and public ownership.
Government regulation generally consists of regulatory commissions charged with the principal duty of setting prices.
To reduce prices and increase output, regulators often use average cost pricing. By average cost pricing, the price and quantity are determined by the intersection of the average cost curve and the demand curve.
Average-cost pricing is not perfect. Regulators must estimate average costs. Companies have a reduced incentive to lower costs.
Regulation of this type has not been limited to natural monopolies. By setting price equal to the intersection of the demand curve and the average total cost curve, the firm's output is allocatively inefficient as the price is less than the marginal cost which is the output quantity for a perfectly competitive and allocatively efficient market.
In , J. Mill was the first individual to describe monopolies with the adjective "natural". He used it interchangeably with "practical".
At the time, Mill gave the following examples of natural or practical monopolies: gas supply, water supply, roads, canals, and railways. In his Social Economics  , Friedrich von Wieser demonstrated his view of the postal service as a natural monopoly: "In the face of [such] single-unit administration, the principle of competition becomes utterly abortive.
The parallel network of another postal organization, beside the one already functioning, would be economically absurd; enormous amounts of money for plant and management would have to be expended for no purpose whatever.
A government-granted monopoly also called a " de jure monopoly" is a form of coercive monopoly , in which a government grants exclusive privilege to a private individual or company to be the sole provider of a commodity.
Monopoly may be granted explicitly, as when potential competitors are excluded from the market by a specific law , or implicitly, such as when the requirements of an administrative regulation can only be fulfilled by a single market player, or through some other legal or procedural mechanism, such as patents , trademarks , and copyright.
A monopolist should shut down when price is less than average variable cost for every output level  — in other words where the demand curve is entirely below the average variable cost curve.
In an unregulated market, monopolies can potentially be ended by new competition, breakaway businesses, or consumers seeking alternatives.
In a regulated market, a government will often either regulate the monopoly, convert it into a publicly owned monopoly environment, or forcibly fragment it see Antitrust law and trust busting.
Public utilities , often being naturally efficient with only one operator and therefore less susceptible to efficient breakup, are often strongly regulated or publicly owned.
The law regulating dominance in the European Union is governed by Article of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union which aims at enhancing the consumer's welfare and also the efficiency of allocation of resources by protecting competition on the downstream market.
Competition law does not make merely having a monopoly illegal, but rather abusing the power a monopoly may confer, for instance through exclusionary practices i.
It may also be noted that it is illegal to try to obtain a monopoly, by practices of buying out the competition, or equal practices. If one occurs naturally, such as a competitor going out of business, or lack of competition, it is not illegal until such time as the monopoly holder abuses the power.
First it is necessary to determine whether a company is dominant, or whether it behaves "to an appreciable extent independently of its competitors, customers and ultimately of its consumer".
Establishing dominance is a two-stage test. The first thing to consider is market definition which is one of the crucial factors of the test.
As the definition of the market is of a matter of interchangeability, if the goods or services are regarded as interchangeable then they are within the same product market.
It is necessary to define it because some goods can only be supplied within a narrow area due to technical, practical or legal reasons and this may help to indicate which undertakings impose a competitive constraint on the other undertakings in question.
Since some goods are too expensive to transport where it might not be economic to sell them to distant markets in relation to their value, therefore the cost of transporting is a crucial factor here.
Other factors might be legal controls which restricts an undertaking in a Member States from exporting goods or services to another.
Market definition may be difficult to measure but is important because if it is defined too broadly, the undertaking may be more likely to be found dominant and if it is defined too narrowly, the less likely that it will be found dominant.
As with collusive conduct, market shares are determined with reference to the particular market in which the company and product in question is sold.
It does not in itself determine whether an undertaking is dominant but work as an indicator of the states of the existing competition within the market.
It sums up the squares of the individual market shares of all of the competitors within the market. The lower the total, the less concentrated the market and the higher the total, the more concentrated the market.
By European Union law, very large market shares raise a presumption that a company is dominant, which may be rebuttable.
The lowest yet market share of a company considered "dominant" in the EU was If a company has a dominant position, then there is a special responsibility not to allow its conduct to impair competition on the common market however these will all falls away if it is not dominant.
When considering whether an undertaking is dominant, it involves a combination of factors. Each of them cannot be taken separately as if they are, they will not be as determinative as they are when they are combined together.
According to the Guidance, there are three more issues that must be examined. They are actual competitors that relates to the market position of the dominant undertaking and its competitors, potential competitors that concerns the expansion and entry and lastly the countervailing buyer power.
Market share may be a valuable source of information regarding the market structure and the market position when it comes to accessing it.
The dynamics of the market and the extent to which the goods and services differentiated are relevant in this area. It concerns with the competition that would come from other undertakings which are not yet operating in the market but will enter it in the future.
So, market shares may not be useful in accessing the competitive pressure that is exerted on an undertaking in this area.
The potential entry by new firms and expansions by an undertaking must be taken into account,  therefore the barriers to entry and barriers to expansion is an important factor here.
Competitive constraints may not always come from actual or potential competitors. Sometimes, it may also come from powerful customers who have sufficient bargaining strength which come from its size or its commercial significance for a dominant firm.
There are three main types of abuses which are exploitative abuse, exclusionary abuse and single market abuse. It arises when a monopolist has such significant market power that it can restrict its output while increasing the price above the competitive level without losing customers.
This is most concerned about by the Commissions because it is capable of causing long- term consumer damage and is more likely to prevent the development of competition.
It arises when a dominant undertaking carrying out excess pricing which would not only have an exploitative effect but also prevent parallel imports and limits intra- brand competition.
Despite wide agreement that the above constitute abusive practices, there is some debate about whether there needs to be a causal connection between the dominant position of a company and its actual abusive conduct.
Furthermore, there has been some consideration of what happens when a company merely attempts to abuse its dominant position.
To provide a more specific example, economic and philosophical scholar Adam Smith cites that trade to the East India Company has, for the most part, been subjected to an exclusive company such as that of the English or Dutch.
Monopolies such as these are generally established against the nation in which they arose out of. The profound economist goes on to state how there are two types of monopolies.
The first type of monopoly is one which tends to always attract to the particular trade where the monopoly was conceived, a greater proportion of the stock of the society than what would go to that trade originally.
The second type of monopoly tends to occasionally attract stock towards the particular trade where it was conceived, and sometimes repel it from that trade depending on varying circumstances.
Rich countries tended to repel while poorer countries were attracted to this. For example, The Dutch company would dispose of any excess goods not taken to the market in order to preserve their monopoly while the English sold more goods for better prices.
Both of these tendencies were extremely destructive as can be seen in Adam Smith's writings. The term "monopoly" first appears in Aristotle 's Politics.
Here's how you can help! Just type the title of the page you want to write in the box below, and start editing. This wiki. This wiki All wikis.
Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki. Have you seen this one? Rules of the Game Quick instructions for playing the classic game.
The Classic Game Where did it come from? Wenn ein Spieler im Gefängnis sitzt, darf er seine Figur nicht bewegen, kann aber weiterhin Häuser bauen, Grundstücke kaufen oder verkaufen und Miete kassieren.
Wenn man auf ein solches Kartenfeld gelangt, ist die entsprechende Karte zu ziehen. Von Zahlung eines geringen Geldbetrages z. Der Inhaber eines Feldes erhält eine Besitzrechtkarte.
An ihn müssen die anderen Mitspieler Geld zahlen, wenn sie auf seinem Feld landen. Im Monopoly existieren 22 Grundstückfelder. Je zwei oder drei solcher Felder haben dieselbe Farbe; diese Farbgruppen repräsentieren Orte mit ähnlichem Mietpreisniveau.
Die Reihenfolge der Felder auf dem Spielplan zeigt einen stetig steigenden Mietwert an. Wenn ein Spieler ein Besitztum eines Mitspielers erreicht, hat er diesem Miete zu entrichten.
Die Miete ist umso höher, je höher der Kaufpreis des Grundstücks ist. Der Kaufpreis für die Häuser steigt mit dem Kaufpreis des Felds.
Durch das Bauen von Häusern erhöht sich die Miete wesentlich. Besitzt man ein Feld mit vier Häusern und zahlt ein weiteres Mal den Kaufpreis eines Hauses, werden die vier Häuser durch ein Hotel ersetzt.
Mehr als die im Monopoly-Spiel enthalten Gebäude 32 Häuser, 12 Hotels können nicht gebaut werden; so ist es etwa möglich, durch den Verzicht auf den Bau von Hotels alle Häuser zu beanspruchen und damit Gegner am Bauen zu hindern.
Die vier Felder in der Mitte der Spielfeldkanten haben in der deutschen und der österreichischen Grundversion die Namen von Bahnhöfen, in der Schweizer Grundversion sind es Bahngesellschaften.
Als Besitzer aller vier solcher Felder kann man besonders viel Geld verdienen, ohne vorher zu investieren. In neueren Varianten des Spielbretts, speziell bei Städteversionen, sind die Bahnhöfe auch durch Flughäfen, Anlegestellen oder Ähnliches ersetzt.
Der zu zahlende Geldbetrag entspricht einem Vielfachen der Augenzahl, mit der ein Spieler auf einem solchen Feld landet.
Mit welchem Faktor die Augenzahl multipliziert wird, hängt davon ab, ob der Besitzer des Feldes auch das andere Versorgungswerk besitzt.
In der Euro- bzw. Besitzt der Eigentümer das Wasser- und das Elektrizitätswerk, so ist die Miete mal so hoch wie die Summe der Augen auf beiden Würfeln.
Beim Landen auf einem dieser Felder muss der auf dem Feld angegebene Geldbetrag an die Bank gezahlt werden. Beim Landen auf einem solchen muss die obere Karte vom Stapel der 16 Karten des entsprechenden Stapels gezogen werden.
Es gibt je 3 Felder beider Kartengruppen. Landet man direkt auf dem Feld, erhält man denselben Betrag.
In einer Ecke des Spielfeldes befindet sich das Gefängnis. Es gibt aber auch die Möglichkeit, als Inhaftierter in das Gefängnis zu kommen.
In das Gefängnis muss. In allen Fällen wird die Spielfigur ebenfalls auf das Feld gestellt. Es gibt etliche Abwandlungen der offiziellen Spielregeln; folgende Varianten sind dabei besonders verbreitet: .
This world edition features top locations of the world. The locations were decided by votes over the Internet.
The result of the voting was announced on August 20, Out of these, Gdynia is especially notable, as it is by far the smallest city of those featured and won the vote thanks to a spontaneous, large-scale mobilization of support started by its citizens.
The new game uses its own currency unit, the Monopolonian a game-based take on the Euro; designated by M. The game uses said unit in millions and thousands.
As seen below, there is no dark purple color-group, as that is replaced by brown, as in the European version of the game. No other countries are represented by more than one city.
Of the 68 cities listed on Hasbro Inc. This is a game. We never wanted to enter into any political debate. We apologize to our Monopoly fans.
A similar online vote was held in early for an updated version of the game. The resulting board should be released worldwide in late Hasbro sells a Deluxe Edition , which is mostly identical to the classic edition but has wooden houses and hotels and gold-toned tokens, including one token in addition to the standard eleven, a railroad locomotive.
Other additions to the Deluxe Edition include a card carousel, which holds the title deed cards, and money printed with two colors of ink.
In , retailer Neiman Marcus manufactured and sold an all-chocolate edition of Monopoly through its Christmas Wish Book for that year.
The entire set was edible, including the money, dice, hotels, properties, tokens and playing board. Wired magazine believes Monopoly is a poorly designed game.
It's a very negative experience. It's all about cackling when your opponent lands on your space and you get to take all their money.
Most of the three to four-hour average playing time is spent waiting for other players to play their turn. The hobby-gaming community BoardGameGeek is especially critical.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 6 December For the video game, see Automonopoli.
Board game about property trading and management. Negotiation Resource management Financial management Strategy. Further information: History of the board game Monopoly.
Standard American Edition Monopoly board layout as of September Free Parking. See also: List of London Monopoly places. UK edition Monopoly board layout.
Monopoly Here and Now: The U. Edition Main article: Ms. Main article: Monopoly Deal. Main article: Monopoly money.
Main article: Monopoly video games. Main article: McDonald's Monopoly. Main article: Monopoly game show. Game description: Gay Monopoly — A celebration of gay life.
Tokens: Jeep, teddy bear, blow drier, leather cap, handcuffs, stiletto heel. Other features: Board layout is circular rather than square.
Free Software. Game description: A parody game based on Anti-Monopoly. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. The New York Times.
Retrieved February 14, Wolfe The San Francisco Bay Guardian. Archived from the original on November 30, Retrieved October 28, New Statesman.
Da Capo Press. The Guardian. April 11, The Monopoly Book. Retrieved July 27, Retrieved June 20, Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved December 7, ABC News.
Retrieved September 18, Wall Street Journal. October 20, The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 11, The Vindicator.
Los Angeles Times. San Diego Union Tribune. Boston Globe. The Globe Company. Retrieved December 4, NBC News. October 22, Retrieved March 4, June 12, Retrieved September 3, June 6, Houston Chronicle.
Bloomberg News. Star Tribune. Retrieved January 12, New Straits Times. Retrieved December 21, Archived from the original on March 3, Retrieved February 21, Archived from the original on March 6, McGraw Hill Education.
Monopoly History. Archived from the original on January 26, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Da Capo Press. Archived from the original on March 22, Retrieved June 10, The Route of the Blue Comet.
March 8, Retrieved September 2, Atlantic Monthly. Retrieved April 23, August 22, Cities Edition board game".
CBC News. January 13, Archived from the original on January 17, Archived from the original on February 21, Archived from the original on September 3, Archived from the original on December 2, Edition Game".
Parents' Choice Foundation. Retrieved November 5, Archived from the original on December 30, Retrieved April 9, Archived from the original on April 2, Archived from the original on September 2, Retrieved September 15, Retrieved November 15, Archived from the original PDF on April 7, Archived from the original PDF on December 10, Retrieved February 11, Archived from the original on December 20, Salem, Massachusetts: Parker Brothers.
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Archived from the original on November 4, Retrieved November 2, CBS News. January 10, Passing Go: Early Monopoly — 1 revised ed. River Forest, Illinois: Folkopoly Press.
Passing Go: Early Monopoly — 1, revised ed. USA Today. Hasbro unveils new token for Monopoly". Retrieved February 6, Retrieved March 17, The Spruce Crafts.
November 29, David McKay Company.